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Unlock code for HALOT - The Hebrew & Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, Ludwig Koehler, Walter Baumgartner and Johann Jakob Stamm, translated and edited under the supervision of M.E.J. Richardson. Copyright © 1994-2000 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. All rights reserved.

This is the standard Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon, essential for serious Old Testament exegetical work.

The first volume of the English version of this classic reference tool for Bible scholars was published in 1994, and the subsequent publication of the other volumes has made it the standard modern English dictionary for Biblical Hebrew. It is based on the third edition of the Lexicon of Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner, which has been widely acclaimed as the most up-to-date complete dictionary for the Old Testament and related literature.

This complete and unabridged translation has been prepared by M. E. J. Richardson with the co-operation of an international team of Hebrew and Old Testament scholars. Some slight modifications have been introduced to make it more useful to readers in the English speaking world.

The work covers the complete vocabulary of the Hebrew Bible, including those parts of books which are written in Aramaic. By extension it also includes those variants from the different textual traditions (Oriental, Samaritan, Septuagint, Ben Sira, Qumran, etc.), as well as parallel expressions in other ancient non-Biblical documents.

It combines scholarly thoroughness with easy accessibility, and so the dictionary meets the needs of a wide range of users. The enormous advances that have taken place in the field of Semitic linguistics since the days of the older dictionaries of Classical Hebrew are here well documented and assessed, as well as the often detailed discussions in modern Bible commentaries of words where the meaning is particularly difficult. But the alphabetical ordering of entries rather than the traditional arrangement of words according to their roots maintains a user friendly face, which is particularly helpful to the beginning student, and will also save the advanced user much time.

Included is an extensive bibliography to cover all the secondary sources to which the original authors made reference.

‘ ...The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament includes a large amount of valuable new material, and it is the most up-to-date, and in several ways the best, modern lexicon of the Old Testament in Hebrew.’
J.A. Emerton, Vetus Testamentum

‘The editor, Mervyn Richardson, and the publisher have done extremely well in the preparation of the English version of Koehler and Baumgartner's well-known dictionary. It is clear, well set out and even more attractive than the original German edition. The dictionary in this new form will have a very good future and will compete very well with other works now appearing.’
Professor James Barr, The Divinity School. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee

‘ ... an extremely attractively produced and easy to use lexicon, which will be essential for all students of Hebrew and which will greatly assist them in their reading of the Old Testament.’
The Expository Times

‘The publishers should be commended for making Koehler/Baumgartner Lexicon available in a Hebrew/Aramaic-English version and for their commitment to complete the project in a relatively short period of time. This edition will certainly be an indispensable reference tool for years to come, one which all serious interpreters of the Old Testament must consult.’
Robert B. Chisholm Jr., Bibliotheca Sacra

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